Recently I gave a talk about profiling and optimization at a local hackerspace. The talk is mostly oriented at C/C++ but is also useful for D and other native languages. It gives a basic overview of various useful (not gprof) profiling tools on Linux as well as some optimizations possible with C++ (and other native langs), and also contains a bunch of links to more advanced articles relevant when you need to get the best performance from a machine.
The most important tools are callgrind (from valgrind suite) and perf. On Debian-family Linuxes these can be installed with:
sudo apt-get install valgrind linux-tools-common
sudo apt-get install valgrind linux-tools-generic